CHARMM c30b1 parmfile.doc



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                  CHARMM Emprical Energy Function Parameters

        This section describes parameters in the CHARMM empirical
energy function.

* Menu:

* Overview::      Overview of CHARMM parameter file by A. D. Mackerell Jr.
* Multiple::      Rules for the use of multiple dihedrals in CHARMM22
* Conversion::    Rules for conversion of old nucleic acid rtf and
                  param to CHARMM22 format 
* PARMDATA::      Description of Parameter Files available for general use.



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                    Overview of CHARMM parameter files

                 By Alexander D. MacKerell Jr., July 1997

        This section of the documenation contains a brief description
of the contents of a parameter file.  The CHARMM parameter file
contains the information necessary to calculate energies etc. when
combined with the information from a PSF file for a structure.
Information on the keywords found in the parameter file is in IO.DOC.

(A)   * CHARMM example parameter file
      *
(B)   BOND
      H   O   500.0  1.00
(C)   ANGLe (THETa)
      H   O   H  100.0  104.51  20.0  1.70
(D)   DIHEdral (PHI)
      HT  CT  CT  HT    10.0   3    180.0
      X   CT  CT  X     10.0   3    180.0
(E)   IMPH
      O   C   CT  N      5.0   1      0.0
      X   C   CT  X      5.0   1      0.0
      X   X   CT  N      5.0   1      0.0
      O   X   X   N      5.0   1      0.0
(F)   NBONDed nonbond-spec
      H    0.00  -0.046  0.2245   0.00  -0.023  0.2245
      O    0.00  -0.120  1.8000   0.00  -0.060  1.8000
(G)   NBFIX
      H    O   -0.30  1.50   -0.15  1.50
(H)   HBONDs  hbond terms (IO.DOC)
      H    O   -0.00  1.00
(I)   END

        The parameter file starts with a title (A) which contains
information on the origins and applicability of that file.

        Section (B) BONDs, contains information on all bond force
constants and equilibrium geometries.  In this as well as the
remainder of the parameter file the bonds etc. are specified by the
atom type associated with each IUPAC atom in the topology file.

        Section (C) ANGLes or THETas, are specified by 3 atom types
followed by the force constant and equilibrium geometry.  If a
Urey-Bradley term is desired between the 1 and 3 atom types of the
angle a second U-B force constant and equilibrium geometry are
included.

        Section (D) DIHEdrals (PHI), contains the 4 atom types
specifing a dihedral followed by the force constant, the multiplicity
of the dihedral and the minimium geometry of the dihedral.  With
dihedrals wildcards, X, as shown may be included for the terminal
atoms.  Also, multiple dihedrals of different multiplicities may be
specified for a single dihedral as outlined below. As of version 25
any value of the phase (besides 0 and 180) may be used.

        Improper dihedrals (E) IMPH, used for out of plane motions are
specified in the same fashion as dihedrals.  The use of wildcards, X,
is also allowed in a number of variations.  Multiple improper
dihedrals are not supported.  By convention, the first atom of an improper
dihedral (type A-X-X-B or A-B-C-D) is usually the central atom.  This had
been a general rule in the past.

        Parameters for (F) NONBonded VDW parameters may be specified
in two ways.  Initially the Tanford-Kirkwood Formula was used where
the atom polarizabilities, Number of effective electrons, and (minimum
radius)/2 were required.  In this formulation the first term following
the atom type is the atom polarizability, the second term is the
number of effective electrons and must be positive in order to specify
the Tanford-Kirkwood Formula and the third term is the (minimum
radius)/2.  If the second term is negative, then the first number is
ignored, the second term is the well-depth (epsilon) and the third
term is the (minimum radius)/2.  Both formulations use the
Lennard-Jones 6-12 formula to determine the VDW interactions, in the
first method the Tanford-Kirkwood Formula is used to calculate the
well-depth (epsilon) and in the second method it is used directly.
With both formulations a second set of 3 numbers may be specified to
indicate the VDW parameters to be used for the calculation of 1-4
nonbonded interactions. Wildcards (*, %, etc. see MISCOM.DOC) may be
used with the NONBond as well as the NBFIX and HBOND sections of the
parameter file.

        The NBFIX section (G) allows VDW interactions between specific
atom pairs to be modified.  This is done by specifing the 2 atom types
followed by the well depth and the minimum radius (not (minimum
radius)/2 as in NBOND).  A second well depth and minimum radius may be
specified to determine the 1-4 interactions.

        The final section (H) contains the hydogen bond well depths
and minimum radii for various atom pairs.  In current versions of the
CHARMM parameter sets (PARAM19, CHARMM22 protein and nucleic acid
parameters) hydrogen bonding is included implicitly in the
electrostatic and VDW interactions.  Thus, the HBOND well depth is set
to -0.00 and in most calculations IHBFRQ should be set to 0 to avoid
updating the hydrogen bond lists. This facility is still supported to
allow calculations using the Lennart Nilsson nucleic acid parameters,
AMBER parameters and for analysis of hydrogen bond geometries.  It
should be noted that both the NBOND and HBOND keywords are followed by
a number of keywords dictating truncation schemes, 1-4 interaction
treatments and dielectric constants, amoung others.  These
specifications are of the upmost importance for relabile calculations
and deviations from the default values supplied with the parameter
files should be done with the utmost caution. As of version 27, a
special parameter files, par_hbond.inp, was added to the toppar
directory; it contains information to calculated hydrogen bonds. Note
that the resulting energetics are meaningless and are only included to
aid in the analysis of hydrogen bonds.



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          Rules for the use of multiple dihedrals in CHARMM24


 1) The association of 1 or more dihedrals with different 
    multiplicities to a specfic dihedral type (as specified 
    by atom types) is specified by the presence of 2 or 
    more dihedral parameters in the parameter file.  When 
    multiple dihedrals are read in the parameter file CHARMM22 
    will list those dihedrals in the output file (Note: the following
    type message "PARRDR> Multiple terms for dihedral type: INDEX  427
    CODE31141959     CT3 -OS  -CD  -OB" indicates that the multiple
    dihedral has been successfully read). 

 2) If dihedral angles are AUTOGENERATED, then the RTF should
    not specify them again. Additional dihedrals in the RTF will 
    be ignored and warnings given.

 3) Without AUTOGENERATE, each dihedral should appear only once 
    in the RTF.  Multiple listings of a dihedral will be ignored
    and warnings given.

 4) The order of the multiple dihedral entries associated with
    a specific dihedral is important; they must be placed
    sequentially in the parameter file.  If they are not sequential
    errors will be given.  This is new in C24B1 and later versions.
    For example:
    P    ON2  P2   ON2      0.03    2     0.0  
    P    ON2  P2   ON2      0.03    3     0.0  
    will place both a 2-fold and a 3-fold term on the P-ON2-P2-ON2
    dihedral.

 5) Wildcards may be used in the parameter file to specify multiple
    dihedrals(ie. X  C1  C2  X), however, all the dihedrals in the
    parameter file associated with that dihedral type must be
    wildcards.  Use of wildcards with multiple dihedrals is NOT
    recommeded.

 6) Specific dihedral entries always override wildcard entries.
    For example:
    X  C2  C3  X   100.0 1 180.0
    C1 C2  C3  C4  100.0 2 180.0
    X  C2  C3  X   100.0 3 180.0
    will assign the 2-fold term to C1-C2-C3-C4 while 1-fold and
    3-fold terms would be assigned to C5-C2-C3-C6 and any other
    dihedral centered about the C2-C3 bond.  This assignment of
    the multiple terms to a number of dihedrals is why the use
    wildcards for the specification of multiple dihedrals in NOT
    recommeded.  The preferred method is as follows:
    X  C2  C3  X   100.0 2 180.0
    C5 C2  C3  C6  100.0 1 180.0
    C5 C2  C3  C6  100.0 3 180.0
    will assign the 1-fold and 3-fold terms to C5-C2-C3-C6 and the
    2-fold term to C1-C2-C3-C4 and any other dihedral centered about 
    the C2-C3 bond.  This limits the potential for multiple dihedrals
    being mistakenly assigned to a dihedral centered on the C2-C3 bond.
    Thus, it is advised that when creating a multiple dihedral all
    4 atom types be explicitly stated and, if necessary, new atom
    types be created to avoid conflicts.

 7) This design is such that previous CHARMM topology and parameter
    files for proteins are compatible with CHARMM24.  However, due
    to complexities in the multiple dihedral setup for the nucleic
    acid sugars (ribose and deoxyribose) the nucleic acid topology 
    and parameter files are NOT compatible with CHARMM22.  In order
    to make them compatible the following alterations must be 
    performed.  Alternatively, the altered files may be obained 
    from Alexander D. MacKerell Jr.



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 Rules for conversion of old nucleic acid rtf and param to CHARMM22 format

 The following conversion rules apply to CHARMM22.  Compatability with
 C24B1 and later versions will be insured if the multiple dihedrals in
 the converted parameters are sequential, as disscused above.

        ALL-HYDROGEN

        Protocol for conversion of all-hydrogen nucleic acid topology and
parameter files (topnah*.inp and parnah*.inp) from a CHARMM21 or
previous format to a format compatible with CHARMM22.  This change is
due to a new methodology for the treatment of multiple dihedrals in
CHARMM22.

        In Topology File (TOPNAH1.INP, TOPNAH1E.INP, TOPNAH1R.INP)

    1)  Create a new atom type, OSS

    2)  Convert the atom type of all O4' atoms to OSS

        In Parameter File (PARNAH1.INP)

    1)  Copy all OS parameters (bonds, angles, dihedrals etc.)
        and in the copy change OS to OSS.  Be sure that the
        original OS parameter remains.  Some OS to OSS copies
        can be avoided (such as OS  P terms), however, one
        must be careful that all the necessary OSS parameters
        relating to O4' are present.  Creating extra OSS 
        parameters which are unused is not a problem. One
        exception occurs with the dihedral OS CH CH OS, where
        only one of the terminal OS atom should be converted
        to OSS.

    2)  In the DIHEDRAL (PHI) parameters under the heading
        "WILMA OLSON SUGAR MODEL" the following steps must be
        performed once all the OSS dihedral parameters are
        created.

    A)  In all the explicit OS terms which don't include
        wildcards (X) or P atom types and have both 2 and
        3-fold periodicities (2nd of 3 numbers following the
        dihedral) the 2nd 3-fold term must be commented out 
        with a !.

    B)  Of the new explicit OSS terms the following
        3-fold terms must be commented out with a !.

        OSS  CH   CH   OS       1.4000    3    0.0000 
        OH   CH   CH   OSS      1.4000    3    0.0000 


        Lastly, when generating the structure be sure only the AUTOGENERATE
ANGLE term is used. (i.e. do NOT use AUTOGENERATE DIHEDRAL).
      
        At this point the topology and parameter files should be
compatible with CHARMM22 (but not CHARMM21 or a previous version of
CHARMM).  A test should be performed on a (deoxy)ribose containing
containing compound.  In this test the energies should be calculated
1) using CHARMM21 or a previous version using the original, unmodified
topology and parameter files and 2) with CHARMM22 using the modified
OSS containing topology and parameter files. These energies should be
equivalent.


        EXTENDED (UNITED) ATOM

        Protocal for the conversion of extended (united,explicit) atom
nucleic acid topology and parameter files from CHARMM21 or previous
format to a format compatible with CHARMM22.  This change is due to a
new methodology for the treatment of multiple dihedrals in CHARMM22.

        In Topology File (TOPRNA10 or TOPRNA10R)

    1)  Create 2 new atom types, OSS and OST

    2)  Convert the atom type of all O4' atoms to OSS except
        in the the patch PRES DEOX where it must be changed
        to atom type OST.  This conversion to OST must also be 
        performed in any residue, such as RESI DRIB, in which 
        deoxyribose is used explicitly.

    3)  In the patch PRES DEOX add the line: 

        ATOM O4'   OST   -0.30  ! (check the charge)

        before the GROUP statement and comment out the terms

  !DELETE DIHE O4'  C4'  C3'  O3' ! WE NEED THIS AS A MULTIPLE TERM IN DEOXY
  !DIHE O4'  C4'  C3'  O3' ! threefold
  !DIHE O4'  C4'  C3'  O3' ! twofold

        such that no alterations in the dihedral setup are made.

        In Parameter File (PARDNA10.INP)

    1)  Copy all OS parameters twice (bonds, angles, dihedrals etc.);
        in the first copy change OS to OSS and in the second change OS
        to OST.  Be sure that the original OS parameter remains.  Some 
        OS to OSS(OST) copies can be avoided (such as terms in which OS 
        is adjacent to P), however, one must be careful that all the 
        necessary OSS(OST) parameters relating to O4' are present.  
        Creating extra OSS(OST) parameters which are unused is not a 
        problem. One exception occurs with the dihedral OS CH CH OS, 
        where only one of the terminal OS atom should be converted
        to OSS(OST).

    2)  In the DIHEDRAL (PHI) parameters under the heading
        "WILMA OLSON SUGAR MODEL" the following steps must be
        performed once all the OSS(OST) dihedral parameters are
        created.

    A)  In all the explicit OS terms which don't include
        wildcards (X) or P atom types and have both 2 and
        3-fold periodicities (2nd of 3 numbers following the
        dihedral) the 2nd term must be commented out 
        with a ! (mostly 3-fold terms and 1 or 2 2-fold term).

    B)  Of the new explicit OSS terms the following 
        3-fold terms must be commented out with a !.

        OSS  CH   CH   OS       1.4000    3    0.0000 
        OH   CH   CH   OSS      1.4000    3    0.0000 
      
    C)  Maintain all of the OST dihedral terms.

        An example of the additions/alterations to pardna10.inp are
listed below.

  BOND
  HO   OSS    450.0000    0.9600
  HO   OST    450.0000    0.9600
  OSS  CH     292.0000    1.4300 
  OSS  C2     292.0000    1.4300 
  OST  CH     292.0000    1.4300 
  OST  C2     292.0000    1.4300 
  C3   OSS    292.0000    1.38   
  C3   OST    292.0000    1.38   
  C    OSS    292.0000    1.43  
  C    OST    292.0000    1.43  

  THETA
  OSS  C2   C3     150.5000  111.0000  
  OSS  C2   CH      70.0000  112.0000
  OSS  C2   C2      82.0000  112.0000  
  OST  C2   C3     150.5000  111.0000  
  OST  C2   CH      70.0000  112.0000
  OST  C2   C2      82.0000  112.0000  
  C2   CH   OSS     46.5000  111.0000
  C2   CH   OST     46.5000  111.0000
  C3   CH   OSS     46.5000  111.0000
  C3   CH   OST     46.5000  111.0000
  CH   CH   OSS     46.5000  111.0000
  CH   CH   OST     46.5000  111.0000
  OSS  CH   NS      46.5000  111.0000
  OSS  CH   NH2E    46.5000  111.0000
  OST  CH   NS      46.5000  111.0000
  OST  CH   NH2E    46.5000  111.0000
  C2   OSS  C2      82.0000  111.5000  
  CH   OSS  CH      46.5000  111.5000
  HO   OSS  CH      46.5000  107.3000
  HO   OSS  C2      46.5000  107.3000
  C2   OST  C2      82.0000  111.5000  
  CH   OST  CH      46.5000  111.5000
  HO   OST  CH      46.5000  107.3000
  HO   OST  C2      46.5000  107.3000
  CH   OSS  C3      46.5     107.3
  CH   OST  C3      46.5     107.3
  C    OSS  C3      46.5     120.5 
  C    OST  C3      46.5     120.5 
  O    C    OSS     70.0     120.0
  O    C    OST     70.0     120.0
  CH   C    OSS     70.0     125.3 
  NA   C    OSS     70.0     120.0 
  CH   C    OST     70.0     125.3 
  NA   C    OST     70.0     120.0 
  OSS  CH   CS      46.5     111.0
  OST  CH   CS      46.5     111.0

  PHI
  X    CH   OSS  X        0.9000    3    0.0000  
  X    CH   OST  X        0.9000    3    0.0000  
  X    C2   OSS  X        0.5000    3    0.0000
  X    C2   OST  X        0.5000    3    0.0000
  ! OSS SUGAR TERMS
  OSS  CH   CH   OS       0.5000    2    0.0000 
  !OSS  CH   CH   OS       1.4000    3    0.0000 Should be commented out
  OH   CH   CH   OSS      0.5000    2    0.0000 
  !OH   CH   CH   OSS      1.4000    3    0.0000 Should be commented out
  OSS  CH   CH   CH       0.5000    2    0.0000 
  OSS  CH   CH   CH       1.4000    3    0.0000
  OSS  CH   C2   CH       1.0000    2    0.0000 
  OSS  CH   C2   CH       1.4000    3    0.0000
  OSS  CH   CH   C2       1.4000    3    0.0000 
  OSS  CH   CH   C2       0.5000    2    0.0000
  OSS  C2   C2   C2       1.4       3    0.0    
  OSS  C2   C2   C2       0.5       2    0.0    
  ! OST SUGAR TERMS
  OST  CH   CH   OS       0.5000    2    0.0000 
  OST  CH   CH   OS       1.4000    3    0.0000 
  OH   CH   CH   OST      0.5000    2    0.0000 
  OH   CH   CH   OST      1.4000    3    0.0000 
  OST  CH   CH   CH       0.5000    2    0.0000 
  OST  CH   CH   CH       1.4000    3    0.0000
  OST  CH   C2   CH       1.0000    2    0.0000 
  OST  CH   C2   CH       1.4000    3    0.0000
  OST  CH   CH   C2       1.4000    3    0.0000 
  OST  CH   CH   C2       0.5000    2    0.0000
  OST  C2   C2   C2       1.4       3    0.0    
  OST  C2   C2   C2       0.5       2    0.0    
  ! additional terms for tRNA
  OSS  CH   CS   CF       1.5       3       0.0
  OST  CH   CS   CF       1.5       3       0.0
  C2   CH   C    OSS      1.5       3       0.0
  C2   CH   C    OST      1.5       3       0.0
  X    C    OSS  X        1.8       2       180.00 
  X    C    OST  X        1.8       2       180.00 
  ! THE FOLLOWING TERMS UNDER THE HEADER
  ! "WILMA OLSON SUGAR MODEL":
  ! SHOULD BE COMMENTED OUT
  !OS   CH   CH   OS       1.4000    3    0.0000 
  !OS   CH   CH   CH       1.4000    3    0.0000
  !OH   CH   CH   OS       1.4000    3    0.0000 
  !OS   CH   C2   CH       1.4000    3    0.0000
  !OS   CH   CH   C2       0.5000    2    0.0000
  !OS   C2   C2   C2       0.5       2    0.0     

  IMPHI
  OSS  X    X    CH      31.5000 0  35.2600
  OST  X    X    CH      31.5000 0  35.2600
  CH   OSS  C2   NS      31.5000 0  35.2600
  CH   OSS  CH   NS      31.5000 0  35.2600
  CH   OSS  C2   NH2E    31.5000 0  35.2600
  CH   OSS  CH   NH2E    31.5000 0  35.2600
  CH   OST  C2   NS      31.5000 0  35.2600
  CH   OST  CH   NS      31.5000 0  35.2600
  CH   OST  C2   NH2E    31.5000 0  35.2600
  CH   OST  CH   NH2E    31.5000 0  35.2600

  NBONDED
  OSS      0.64      7.0       1.6
  OST      0.64      7.0       1.6

        Lastly, when generating the structure be sure only the
AUTOGENERATE ANGLE term is used. (i.e. do NOT use AUTOGENERATE
DIHEDRAL).

        At this point the topology and parameter files should be
compatible with CHARMM22 (but not CHARMM21 or a previous version of
CHARMM).  A test should be performed on a (deoxy)ribose containing
containing compound.  In this test the energies should be calculated
1) using CHARMM21 or a previous version using the original, unmodified
topology and parameter files and 2) with CHARMM22 using the modified
OSS containing topology and parameter files. These energies should be
equivalent.



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(A) Topology files
    (1)  top_all22_prot.inp       all hydrogen RTF for proteins
    (2)  top_all22_model.inp      all hydrogen RTF for protein model cmpds
    (3)  top_all22_sugar.rtf      all hydrogen RTF for sugars
    (4)  top_all27_na.rtf         all hydrogen RTF for nucleic acids
    (5)  top_all27_lipid.rtf      all hydrogen RTF for lipids
    (6)  top_all27_na_lipid.rtf   all hydrogen RTF for nucleic acids and lipids
    (7)  top_all27_prot_na.rtf    all hydrogen RTF for proteins and nucleic acids
    (9)  top_all27_prot_lipid.rtf all hydrogen RTF for proteins and lipids
    (9)  toph19.inp               extended atom RTF for proteins
    (10) toprna10r_22.inp         extended atom RTF for nucleic acids

(B) Parameter files
    (1)  par_all22_prot.inp       all hydrogen parameters for proteins
    (2)  par_all22_sugar.rtf      all hydrogen parameters for sugars
    (3)  par_all27_na.rtf         all hydrogen parameters for nucleic acids
    (4)  par_all27_lipid.rtf      all hydrogen parameters for lipids
    (5)  par_all27_na_lipid.rtf   all hydrogen parameters for nucleic acids and lipids
    (6)  par_all27_prot_na.rtf    all hydrogen parameters for proteins and nucleic acids
    (7)  par_all27_prot_lipid.rtf all hydrogen parameters for proteins and lipids
    (8)  param19.inp              extended atom parameters for proteins
    (9)  pardna10_22.inp          extended atom parameters for nucleic acids
    (10) par_hbond.inp            hydrogen bond parameters for analysis only

Phased out: The CHARMM22 all-atom nucleic acid and lipid topology and
parameter files are no longer included in the toppar directory due to
their becoming obsolete.  Note that they are included in the
toppar_history directories.

The CHARMM all-hydrogen topology and parameter sets may be
considered to be stable, however, minor bug fixes may be performed as
required.  Additions may also occur leading to an expanding set of
parameters which are compatible across proteins, nucleic acids,
lipids, and, ultimately, carbohydrates.  The carbohydrate(sugar)
parameter work is still in progress by John Brady and coworkers; the
number of sugar types should expand in the future.  See the file
toppar_all.history for a listing changes in the files over time.
top_all22_model.inp includes the majority of model compounds used in
the protein parameterization and is to be used in conjunction with
par_all22_prot.inp.  

Three sets of combined topology and parameter files are included
for use with 1) proteins and nucleic acids, 2) protein and lipids
and 3) nucleic acids and lipids.  In all cases the CHARMM22 protein
parameters and the CHARMM27 nucleic acid or lipid parameters are
used.  The designation all27 for these files is based on the
use of the most recent nucleic acid or lipid parameters.  Test
calculations using these combined files have yielded good results.

Added as of July 1997 was the parameter file par_hbond.inp.  This file
is included for the analysis of hydrogen bonds; it includes
information to calculate h-bond energies, but these are basically
meaningless.  The hydrogen bonds should NOT be used for energy,
minimization and dynamics calculations with the CHARMM all-hydrogen
topology and parameter sets.

Ions in the all22 files are from two sources.  Mg and Ca are from
Prodhom and Karplus and were optimized specifically for the all22
parameters.  The remaining cations are from Benoit Roux (see his
thesis).  They were optimized to be consistent with Param19, however,
MD studies in a number of groups have shown them to work well.  Note
the presence of a variety of NBFIXES for the ions.  These were
initially optimized based on the proteins and later transferred to the
lipids and nucleic acids based on analogy (by ADM Jr.).  Ions in the 
all27 files have been optimized based on free energies of solvation
by Roux and coworkers.  As of August 1999 there were no NBFIXes
used with these ions.

The extended atom parameters for proteins are the same as those
included with CHARMM20 which are based on Wally Reiher's thesis.  They
have been included in the supplement material of a recent publication
(see suggested citations below).  For the extended atom nucleic acid
parameters those of Nilsson and Karplus, J. Comp.  Chem.  7:591-616,
1986 are used which were also included in the CHARMM20 release and are
the only set to include explicit hydrogen bonding terms.  Some
alterations of the extended atom nucleic acid topology and parameter
files have been made in order to maintain compatibility with the
multiple dihedral scheme in CHARMM22.
  
Please send all remarks and suggestions to alex@mmiris.ab.umd.edu.

ADM Jr., August 1999
http://www.pharmacy.ab.umd.edu/~alex/

References

PARAM19 PROTEIN PARAMETERS

Reiher, III., W.E. Theoretical Studies of Hydrogen Bonding, Ph.D.
Thesis, Department of Chemistry, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
USA, 1985

and

Neria, E., Fischer, S., and Karplus, M.  Simulation of Activation Free
Energies in Molecular Systems, Journal of Chemical Physics, 1996, 105:
1902-21. 

EXTENDED ATOM NUCLEIC ACID PARAMETERS

Nilsson, L. and Karplus,M. Empirical Energy Functions for Energy
Minimizations and Dynamics of Nucleic Acids J. Comp.  Chem.
7:591-616, 1986

CHARMM22 PROTEIN PARAMETERS

MacKerell, J., A.D.; Bashford, D.; Bellott, M.; Dunbrack Jr., R. L.;
Evanseck, J.; Field, M. J.; Fischer, S.; Gao, J.; Guo, H.; Ha, S.;
Joseph, D.; Kuchnir, L.; Kuczera, K.; Lau, F. T. K.; Mattos, C.;
Michnick, S.; Ngo, T.; Nguyen, D. T.; Prodhom, B.; Reiher, I., W. E.;
Roux, B.; Schlenkrich, M.; Smith, J.; Stote, R.; Straub, J.; Watanabe,
M.; Wiorkiewicz-Kuczera, J.; Yin, D.; Karplus, M.  All-hydrogen
Empirical Potential for Molecular Modeling and Dynamics Studies of
Proteins using the CHARMM22 Force Field.  Journal of Physical
Chemistry B, 1998, 102, 3586-3616.

FOR PHOSPHOTYROSINE

Feng, M.-H., Philippopoulos, M., MacKerell, Jr., A.D., and Lim, C.
Structural Characterization of the Phosphotyrosine Binding Region of a
High-Affinity SH2 Domain-Phosphopeptide Complex by Molecular Dynamics
Simulation and Chemical Shift Calculations, Journal of the American
Chemical Society, 1996, 118: 11265-11277

CHARMM27 NUCLEIC ACID PARAMETERS

Foloppe, N. and MacKerell, Jr., A.D. "All-Atom Empirical Force Field for
Nucleic Acids: 2) Parameter Optimization Based on Small Molecule and
Condensed Phase Macromolecular Target Data.  Journal of Computational
Chemsitry, 2000, 21:86-104.

and

MacKerell, Jr., A.D. and Banavali, N. "All-Atom Empirical Force Field for
Nucleic Acids: 2) Application to Molecular Dynamics Simulations of DNA
and RNA in Solution.  Journal of Computational Chemsitry, 2000, 21:105-120.

CHARMM27 LIPID PARAMETERS

Feller, S. and MacKerell, Jr., A.D. manuscript in preparation.

NAD+, NADH and PPI

Pavelites, J.J., Bash, P.A., Gao, J. and MacKerell, Jr., A.D. A
Molecular Mechanics Force Field for NAD+, NADH, and the Pyrophosphate
Groups of Nucleotides, Journal of Computational Chemistry, 1997, 18:
221-239.

CHARMM22 NUCLEIC ACID PARAMETERS

MacKerell Jr., A.D., Wiorkiewicz-Kuczera, J. and Karplus, M. An
all-atom empirical energy function for the simulation of nucleic
acids, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1995,
117:11946-11975. 

CHARMM22 LIPID PARAMETERS

Schlenkrich, M., Brickmann, J., MacKerell, Jr., A.D., and Karplus, M.
Empirical Potential Energy Function for Phospholipids: Criteria for
Parameter Optimization and Applications, in "Biological Membranes: A
Molecular Perspective from Computation and Experiment," K.M. Merz and
B. Roux, Eds. Birkhauser, Boston, 1996, pp 31-81.

FOR ALKENES

Feller, S.E., Yin, D., Pastor, R.W., and MacKerell, Jr., A.D.,
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Unsaturated Lipids at Low Hydration:
Parametrization and Comparison with Diffraction Studies.  Biophysical
Journal 1997, 73: 2269-2279.


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