CHARMM c30b1 pimplem.doc



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        Implementation of the Thermodynamic Simulation Method
 

* Menu:
 
* Description::        How Chemical Perturbation works.
* File Formats::       Output File Formats for Chemical Perturbation.
* IC Implementation::  Implementation and File Formats for Internal
                       Coordinate Perturbation



File: PIMPLEM ]-[ Node: Description
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         How the Chemical Perturbation Energy Calculation Works

 
        For  thermodynamic  perturbation calculations the atoms making up
the system described by the hybrid Hamiltonian, H(lambda), can be divided
into four groups.  1) The environment part - all atoms that do not change
during  the  perturbation.   E.g., for ethanol -> propane the solvent and
the  terminal  methyl  group.  2) The reactant atoms - the atoms that are
present  at  lambda  = 0 and absent at lambda = 1. 3) The product atoms -
the  atoms  that  are absent at lambda = 0 and present at lambda = 1.  4)
The  COLO atoms - atoms that are present in both the reactant and product
but change charge in going from one to the other.
 
        Certain  basic  premises underly our approach.  Energy values are
factored  by  lambda  (or  functions thereof), never the energy functions
themselves.  The standard energy routines are called unchanged and can be
modified  without  requiring changes to the perturbation routines as long
as  the  calling  sequence  remains the same.  Potential energy terms are
written  to  output  during  a  trajectory  and in the case of the window
method  trajectories  can  be combined.  Futhermore any lambda -> lambda'
can  be  calculated post priori and additional lambda points can be added
as  desired.   Most  other  implementations  do not appear to allow this.
There  is, however, a price entailed namely a certain amount of redundant
calculation.   Furthermore , purely as a matter of conceptual preference,
the  entire  perturbation  part of the Hamiltonian is facter by lambda in
the  same  way.  There has been some advocacy of factoring the attractive
and  repulsive  part of the Lennard-Jones potential with different powers
of lambda (see Cross).
 
        We  want  to  calculate  the  potential energy U(lambda) = Uenv +
(1-lambda)**N  Ureac  +  lambda**N  Uprod,  where  N  is positive integer
exponent  and  Uenv  is  the energy of the common environment part of the
system.   The  residue  topology  file  for  the  system  undergoing  the
perturbation  has  all the internal coordinate terms for both the product
and  reactant  parts  and the regular CHARMM energy routine calculates an
energy  term that in it's sum contains part of Ureac and Uprod along with
Uenv  and  in  certain cases, as will be discussed shortly, an additional
term  that  needs  to  be  removed.  The residue description must contain
non-bonded  exclusions between the product and reactant atoms. Of course,
none of this is factored correctly, or at all, by lambda.
 
        The  approach to obtaining a the correct U(lambda) is an indirect
one.   Instead  of making it so that the normal energy routine calculates
Uenv  only and having the perturbation energy routine calcuated determine
(1-lambda)**N  Ureac  + lambda**N Uprod, we have it instead calculate the
amount that must be subtracted from the normal energy routine value (here
after  referred  to  as  Unorm) to get U(lambda).  The previous statement
must  be  amended  for  the case where there are COLO atoms.  Then, Unorm
contains  a  term  that must be totally removed and is missing some terms
completely, which must be added.
 
        For  the  internal coordinate energy terms and the non-bonded van
der  Waals interactions, the amount that must be subtracted from Unorm to
obtain U(lambda) is given by:
 
            U(lambda) = Unorm + Ucorr
 
since,
 
            U(lambda) = U(env) + (1 - lambda)**N Ureac + lambda**N Uprod
and
 
            Unorm = U(env) + Ureac + Uprod
then
            -Ucorr = [1-(1-lambda)**N]Ureac + [1-lambda**N]Uprod .
 
We  have currently ignored the electrostatic terms.  If there are no COLO
atoms the above expressions hold true for those terms as well.
 
        If  there  are  COLO  atoms , the  situation  becomes  a bit more
complicated.  To discuss this the following nomenclature is introduced:
 
   [reac| reac,colo-r,env]
 
The  expression  above  indicates  the  calculation  of the electrostatic
interaction  between  reactant  atoms and 1) other reactant atoms 2) COLO
atoms with the reactant energy charges and 3) with environment atoms.
 
   Unorm contains the following electrostatic terms:
 
   [reac| reac, colo-r, env] + [color | prod, colo-r, env] +
   [prod | prod, env]
 
The  term  [ colo-r | prod ]  must  be  removed in it's entirety (product
atoms  do  not  interact with reactant charges (colo-r).  And the missing
interactions  involving  colo-p (product) charges must be added (suitably
factored by lambda). To do this Ucorr must contain:
 
    (1 - (1 - lambda)**N) { [reac | reac, colo-r, env] +
                            [colo-r | colo-r, env] }
    + (1 - lambda**N)[prod | prod, env] + 1[color|prod]
    - lambda**N [colo-p | colo-p, prod, env]
 
Note that -Ucorr is passed from the perturbation energy routine, thus the
negative  term  (last  one)  actually  adds  what is totally missing from
Unorm.  The electrostatic contribution to Ucorr is actually calculated in
an even more round-about fashion than that which is given above.
 
        First  both  the  van  der  Waal's and electrostatic interactions
involving reactant and product atoms with everything (except interactions
between  reactant and product atoms) are calculated.  The reactant colo-r
charges are used for this.  This provides the term:
 
     (1 -(1-lambda)**N)[reac | env, colo-r, reac ]
and
     (1 - lambda**N)[prod | env, colo-r, prod ].
 
If  there  are no COLO atoms, this is all we need (absent the colo-r term
in  the expressions).  Otherwise, three more calculations, involving only
the  electrostatic energy, are required.  The first involves interactions
between colo-r charges with environment and other colo-r charges:
 
      (1-(1-lambda)**N)[colo-r | env, colo-r]
 
Next  the colo-r product atom electrostatic interaction is calculated and
factored  by  a function of lambda that compensates for the amount in the
second     ([prod | colo-r ...] )    calculation.     In    that    term,
1-lambda**N[prod | colo-r] is included so we must determine,
 
      (lambda**N)[colo-r| prod]
 
(Since the quantity (1-lambda**N) is calculated once we actually use,
 
      (1 - (1 - lambda**N))[colo-r| prod]
 
Following  this the colo-r charges are exchanged, temporarily, for colo-p
and the last calculations is done.  The final expression is:
 
    -lambda**N [colo-p | prod, env, colo-p]
 
Which actually adds (see above) the missing interaction into the total
potential energy.
 
        The colo-r charges are restored after this.  The same procedure
is done for the image atom calculation.
 
        It   is   obvious  that  some  optimization  of  this  method  is
achievable.   One  possibility  is  that by sorting the atom list so that
COLO,  reactant  and  product atoms appear at the top of the list in that
order,  most  of  the  non-bonded  list  checking  can be avoided and the
copying of data structures on the heap eliminated.  A more radical change
would  be  to edit the non-bonded lists so that the normal energy routine
calculates  only  Uenv and the perturbation routines calculated Ureac and
Uprod  directly.   The  presence  of the COLO atoms makes both procedures
more  complicated.   However,  there  does  not  appear  to  be  a viable
alternative to the COLO atoms that is consistant with our approach.




File: PIMPLEM ]-[ Node: File Formats
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                             File Formats
 
        This  node  provides  information  on the FES output file format.
The  data  file  created  during dynamics can only be written as an ASCII
formatted  file.   It  starts  with  a  title  that  is written using the
subroutine  WRITITL and thus has the standard CHARMM title format.  After
terminating  the  title  with  a line containing an asterisk in the first
column and nothing else, an information line follows, containing:
 
    NSTEP, PERFRQ, NDEGF, NPUMB, LPOWER  -   5(I6,1X)
 
The  first  two  numbers  are  not  currently used by the post-processor.
NDEGF, the number of degrees of freedom is used if the CTEMp flag is set.
Npumb is the number of umbrella dihedral angles.  If the UMBR flag is set
in  the  PROCess  command  and  NPUMB  is non-zero, the umbrella sampling
correction will be effected.  LPOWER is the exponent for lambda scaling.
 
        Every  PFREQ  steps  the  FES information is written out the unit
specified  in  the  SAVE statement.   If umbrella sampling is invoked the
format is as follows:
 
 
     NPRIV,AKMATI,LAMBDA,E,VPRTTR,VPRTTP,VPRTNR,VPRTNP,
     VPRTVR,VPRTVP,VPRTER,VPRTEP,TOTE,TOTKE,PUMEP
 
     FORMAT(I12,2(1X,1PG24.16E2),/,3(2(1PG24.16E2,1X),
     1      1PG24.16E2,/),2(1PG24.16E2,1X),1PG24.16E2)
 
If umbrella sampling is not invoked it is as follows:
 
     NPRIV,AKMATI,LAMBDA,E,VPRTTR,VPRTTP,VPRTNR,VPRTNP,
     VPRTVR,VPRTVP,VPRTER,VPRTEP,TOTE,TOTKE
 
     FORMAT(I12,2(1X,1PG24.16E2),/,3(2(1PG24.16E2,1X),
     1      1PG24.16E2,/),1PG24.16E2,1X,1PG24.16E2)
 
Where:
        NPRIV     step number
        AKMATI    timestep in wierd CHARMM units
        LAMBDA    value of lambda at timestep
        E         total potential energy
        VPRTTR    V(reactant) potential energy
        VPRTTP    V(product)  ""
        VPRTNR    V(reactant) potential energy vdw + electrostatic
        VPRTNP    V(product)  ""
        VPRTVR    V(reactant) potential energy vdw
        VPRTVP    V(product)  ""
        VPRTER    V(reactant) potential energy  electrostatic
        VPRTEP    V(product)  ""
        TOTE      Total energy (potential + kinetic)
        TOTKE     Total kinetic energy.
and with umbrella sampling:
        PUMEP     The exp[-beta(Vsur - Vact)] term.



File: PIMPLEM ]-[ Node: IC Implementation
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            Internal Coordinate Implementation and File Formats

	We describe how we have incorporated the double-wide, multiple-point, 
window method for computing conformational free energy surfaces into 
CHARMM.  The following brief summary describes the interface of the 
internal coordinate constraint and perturbation code with other CHARMM 
routines, and it also shows the order in which the tasks are carried out, 
as well as the format of the perturbation data file.

	The primary internal coordinate (i.c.) constraint, perturbation, and 
post-processing commands, as well as other TSM commands, are parsed in the 
subroutine TSMS.  When an i.c. constraint command is read, TSMS calls 
ICFSET to parse the remainder of the command and to set-up the data needed 
for the constraint resetting algorithm.  When an i.c. perturbation command 
is read, TSMS calls ICPSET to parse the remainder of the command and to 
set-up the data needed to do the i.c. perturbations.  Post-processing 
command parsing and set-up is handled by the subroutine TSMP.

	Some time after the constraints and perturbations are specified, a 
dynamics command is issued and the dynamics is set up.  During the dynamics 
set-up, a "header" is written to the i.c. perturbation data file (opened on 
unit iunicp) using the following fortran write statement in the subroutine 
DCNTRL:

	write(iunicp,100) nicp,icpinc,ndegf,delta
100	format(3i6,f12.6)

The variable nicp is the number of internal coordinates that will be 
perturbed, icpinc is the number of subintervals, ndegf is the number of 
degrees of freedom, and delta is the timestep in AKMA units.  After the 
dynamics is set-up, DCNTRL calls DYNAMC to integrate the equations of 
motion.  The main dynamics loop in DYNAMC is summarized in the following 
pseudo-fortran code:

	do istep = istart,istop	* loop over number of steps
		...
		call ENERGY	* get U(z) and forces
		take unconstrained dynamics step
		call SHAKEA	* satisfy shake and i.c. cons.
		...
		call DYNICP	* do pert. and get int. E’s;
		...
	end do

The subroutine ENERGY calculates the total potential energy and the forces 
needed to propagate the dynamics.  After an unconstrained dynamics step is 
taken, SHAKEA is called to satisfy the SHAKE and i.c. constraints in an 
iterative fashion.  We have to iterate the SHAKE and i.c. constraints 
together, because the SHAKE constraint resetting may cause an ic constraint 
to be violated, and vice versa.  This constraint resetting procedure is 
illustrated with the following pseudo-code:

	do while (.not.done)	* e.g. until shake has converged
             perform iteration of shake cons. resetting
             call icfcns	       * satisfy i.c. constraints
             done = done.and..not.anyadj    * if any i.c. constraints
                                            * were adjusted, anyadj = 
.true.
	end do while

After the constraints are satisfied, DYNICP is called to do the double-
wide, multiple-point perturbations and calculate the interaction energies.  
In DYNICP, the subroutine EIICP is called first to compute the interaction 
energy of the unperturbed system (esbnp).  Then the internal coordinate 
values are obtained and some data is written to the perturbation data file:

	call EIICP	* get E for unperturbed system (esbnp)
	do i = 1,nicp
		get icval(1,i)	* get unperturbed i.c. values
	end do
c	write data for unperturbed system:
	write(iunicp,100) npriv,akmati,tote,totke,esbnp
100	format(i7,f10.4,3d16.8)

The two-dimensional array icval holds the internal coordinate values.  The 
unperturbed values are held in the first row, the values from the forward 
perturbation in the second row, and the values from the reverse 
perturbation in the third row.  The data written to the data file includes 
the number of the current dynamics step (npriv), the current simulation 
time in AKMA units (akmati), the total energy (tote), total kinetic energy 
(totke), and the interaction energy of the unperturbed system (esbnp).

	Next, the unperturbed coordinates are copied into temporary arrays so 
they can be restored after the perturbations have been carried out.  Then 
the double-wide, multiple point perturbations are carried out in a loop 
over subintervals.  The forward perturbation in each subinterval is done 
first, followed by the reverse perturbation.  The subroutine MVICP moves 
the atoms involved in the perturbations using the algorithms described 
above, and EIICP computed the interaction energies.  The following pseudo-
code shows how these tasks are dispatched:

	copy coords. into temp. arrays
	scale = 0.0
	dscale = 1.0/icpinc
	do inc = 1,icpinc	* loop over subintervals
		scale = scale + dscale
		call mvicp	* move atoms by scale*dz
		call eiicp	* get int. E for forward pert. (esbfp)
		do i = 1,nicp
			get icval(2,i)	* get perturbed i.c. values
		end do
		restore coords. from temp. arrays
		call mvicp	* move atoms by –scale*dz
		call eiicp	* get E for reverse pert. (esbrp)
		do i = 1,nicp
			get icval(3,i)	* get perturbed i.c. values
		end do

After all of the atoms have been moved and the interaction energies have 
been computed for the forward and reverse perturbations in a subinterval, 
the interaction energies and internal coordinate values are written to the 
data file, and the unperturbed coordinates are restored in preparation for 
the next subinterval (or the next dynamics step):

c	write interaction energies of perturbed systems
		write(iunicp,101) scale,esbfp,esbrp
101		format(7x,f10.4,2d16.8)
c	write internal coordinate values
		do i = 1,nicp
			write(iunicp,102)
				ic,icptyp(i),icval(1,i),icval(2,i),icval(3,i)
102		format(9x,2i4,3d16.8)
		end do
		restore coordinates from temp. arrays
	end do

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